Takeoff forces transmitted to the upper extremity during water-skiing

Jeffrey P. Keverline, Richard B. Englund, Timothy E. Cooney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


As data were unavailable, this study quantified the forces acting on the upper extremities during water-skiing take-off in 10 male volunteers (mean age: 28 years). Body weight ranged between 141 and 195 lbs. Low, medium, and full-power, takeoffs were used to propel each skier out of the water. Although low-power takeoffs produced significantly less peak force (P≤.0004), they yielded a trend toward greater time under load (P=.097). As the data suggest that forces assume roughly one and one-half times body weight, individuals with pre-existing shoulder morbidity may risk exacerbation of their condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)707-710
Number of pages4
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Takeoff forces transmitted to the upper extremity during water-skiing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this