Tautomeric conjugate acids of 2-aminopyrroles: Effect of substituents, solvation and cosolute

Xavier Fradera, Michael De Rosa, Modesto Orozco, F. Javier Luque

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The tautomeric preferences of the conjugated acids of 2-aminopyrrole derivatives have been examined both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution by using a combination of quantum mechanical, self-consistent reaction field and Monte Carlo-free-energy perturbation methods. The results show that the nature of substituents, the solvent and the presence of cosolute are relevant factors in modulating the relative stability between the tautomeric conjugate acids protonated at the heterocyclic ring and at the exocyclic amino nitrogen. Thus, attachment of electron-withdrawing groups to the ring, solvation in polar solvents, and the presence of negatively charged cosolutes tend to favor protonation at the exocyclic amino nitrogen. Nevertheless, none of these factors alone suffice to change the tautomeric preference for the ring-protonated forms. The results point out that the concerted occurrence of the three factors is necessary to shift the tautomeric preference towards the conjugated species protonated at the exocyclic nitrogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-230
Number of pages8
JournalTheoretical Chemistry Accounts
Issue number2-6
StatePublished - Mar 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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