Temperature-controlled power modulation compensates for heterogeneous nanoparticle distributions: a computational optimization analysis for magnetic hyperthermia

Sri Kamal Kandala, Eleni Liapi, Louis L. Whitcomb, Anilchandra Attaluri, Robert Ivkov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Purpose: To study, with computational models, the utility of power modulation to reduce tissue temperature heterogeneity for variable nanoparticle distributions in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. Methods: Tumour and surrounding tissue were modeled by elliptical two- and three-dimensional computational phantoms having six different nanoparticle distributions. Nanoparticles were modeled as point heat sources having amplitude-dependent loss power. The total number of nanoparticles was fixed, and their spatial distribution and heat output were varied. Heat transfer was computed by solving the Pennes’ bioheat equation using finite element methods (FEM) with temperature-dependent blood perfusion. Local temperature was regulated using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Tissue temperature, thermal dose and tissue damage were calculated. The required minimum thermal dose delivered to the tumor was kept constant, and heating power was adjusted for comparison of both the heating methods. Results: Modulated power heating produced lower and more homogeneous temperature distributions than did constant power heating for all studied nanoparticle distributions. For a concentrated nanoparticle distribution, located off-center within the tumor, the maximum temperatures inside the tumor were 16% lower for modulated power heating when compared to constant power heating. This resulted in less damage to surrounding normal tissue. Modulated power heating reached target thermal doses up to nine-fold more rapidly when compared to constant power heating. Conclusions: Controlling the temperature at the tumor-healthy tissue boundary by modulating the heating power of magnetic nanoparticles demonstrably compensates for a variable nanoparticle distribution to deliver effective treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-129
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Hyperthermia
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cancer Research


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