Tenacity of avian influenza viruses

D. E. Stallknecht, J. D. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


The goal of this review is to provide an overview of existing research on the environmental tenacity of avian influenza (Al) viruses, to identify gaps in our current understanding, and discuss how this information relates to Al control, eradication, and prevention. We are just beginning to understand the environmental factors that affect infectivity and the extent of variation in environmental tenacity that is present among these viruses. Because the environment can provide a bridge for Al virus transmission between many diverse hosts, including wild and domestic animals and man, understanding the importance of environmental transmission and identifying important points of contact are critical steps in preventing the spread of infection especially related to the introduction of these viruses to new host species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalOIE Revue Scientifique et Technique
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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