Testing a constraints model within the context of nature-based tourism

Lori A. Pennington-Gray, Deborah L. Kerstetter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

135 Scopus citations


This study focused on pleasure travelers' perceived constraints to nature-based tourism. Eleven constraint statements were identified through a literature review and were chosen a priori to represent three types of constraint as outlined by Crawford, Jackson, and Godbey. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the three types of constraints (intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) existed in the context of nature-based tourism. A confirmatory factor analysis using the EQS program was used to "confirm" that the data fit the three-constraint model. MANOVA was then employed to identify whether respondents differed in their perception of constraints based on demographic variables. The findings indicated that differences existed with regards to age and family life cycle stage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)416-423
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Travel Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Transportation
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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