Testing the dimensionality of place attachment in recreational settings

Gerard Kyle, Alan Graefe, Robert Manning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

496 Scopus citations


The purpose of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of a place-attachment scale using data collected from visitors to the Appalachian Trail in the United States. These data supported a correlated three-factor model consisting of place identity, place dependence, and social bonding. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to cross-validate the model using two sub-samples of the data. Latent factor means were also compared. Although these analyses provided mixed evidence indicating the scale to be a valid and reliable measure of place attachment, there remains some concern about the performance of several indicators (i.e., low factor loadings, low reliability). Latent mean differences were also observed between the two groups on the place identity dimension. The analyses presented in this investigation provide an example of the utility of covariance structure analysis for testing the psychometric properties of scales and for comparing latent mean differences among groups within populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-177
Number of pages25
JournalEnvironment and Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Environmental Science


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