Background: Bacterial prophylaxis with a fluoroquinolone (FQ) during autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is common, although not standardized among transplant centers. The addition of doxycycline (doxy) to FQ prophylaxis was previously linked to reduced neutropenic fever and bacteremia in multiple myeloma (MM) patients undergoing ASCT although several confounders were present. We compared the incidence of neutropenic fever and bacteremia between MM patients variably receiving prophylaxis with FQ alone and FQ-doxy during ASCT. Methods: Systematic retrospective chart review of MM patients who underwent ASCT between January 2016 and December 2021. The primary objective was to determine the effect of bacterial prophylaxis on neutropenic fever and bacteremia within 30 days of ASCT. Multivariable logistic regression for neutropenic fever and univariate logistic regression for bacteremia accounted for differences in subject characteristics between groups. Results: Among 341 subjects, 121 received FQ and 220 received FQ-doxy for prophylaxis. Neutropenic fever developed in 67 (55.4%) and 87 (39.5%) subjects in the FQ and FQ-doxy groups, respectively (p =.005). Bacteremia was infrequent, with 5 (4.1%) and 5 (2.3%) cases developing in the FQ and FQ-doxy groups, respectively (p =.337). Among Gram-negative bacteremia events, 7/7 Escherichia coli strains were FQ-resistant, and 5/7 were ceftriaxone-resistant. Conclusion: The FQ-doxy prophylaxis group had fewer cases of neutropenic fever than the FQ group, however, there was no significant difference in bacteremia. High rates of antibiotic resistance were observed. An updated randomized controlled trial investigating appropriate prophylaxis for ASCT in the context of current oncology standards and changing antimicrobial resistance rates is warranted. (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14241
JournalTransplant Infectious Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Transplantation
  • Infectious Diseases

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