The COVID-19 vaccine concerns scale: Development and validation of a new measure

Megan E. Gregory, Sarah R. MacEwan, Jonathan R. Powell, Jaclyn Volney, Jordan D. Kurth, Eben Kenah, Ashish R. Panchal, Ann Scheck McAlearney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Reasons for COVID-19 hesitancy are multi-faceted and tend to differ from those for general vaccine hesitancy. We developed the COVID-19 Vaccine Concerns Scale (CVCS), a self-report measure intended to better understand individuals’ concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. We validated the scale using data from a convenience sample of 2,281 emergency medical services providers, a group of professionals with high occupational COVID-19 risk. Measures included the CVCS items, an adapted Oxford COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale, a general vaccine hesitancy scale, demographics, and self-reported COVID-19 vaccination status. The CVCS had high internal consistency reliability (α =.89). A one-factor structure was determined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA), resulting in a seven-item scale. The model had good fit (X2[14] = 189.26, p <.001; CFI =.95, RMSEA =.11 [.09,.12], NNFI =.93, SRMR =.03). Moderate Pearson correlations with validated scales of general vaccine hesitancy (r =.71, p <.001; n = 2144) and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (r =.82; p <.001; n = 2279) indicated construct validity. The CVCS predicted COVID-19 vaccination status (B = −2.21, Exp(B) =.11 [95% CI =.09,.13], Nagelkerke R2 =.55), indicating criterion-related validity. In sum, the 7-item CVCS is a reliable and valid self-report measure to examine fears and concerns about COVID-19 vaccines. The scale predicts COVID-19 vaccination status and can be used to inform efforts to reduce COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2050105
JournalHuman Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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