The effect of plywood and polyethylene calf hutches on heat stress

B. P. Lammers, J. W. Vankoot, A. J. Heinrichs, R. E. Graves

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15 Scopus citations


The objective of the study was to evaluate calf heat stress during the summer using different types of outdoor individual hutches. Eight calves were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four types of hutches; standard plywood hutch painted white (WH), standard plywood hutch painted black (BH), polyethylene hutch under shade (PHS), polyethylene hutch without shade (PH). Relative humidity, air temperature, and hutch surface temperature were monitored inside and outside of the hutch. Calf parameters that were measured included: skin and rectal temperature, respiratory rate, hematocrit, and water and grain intake. All measurements were taken at 0700, 1000, 1300, 1600, and 1900 h. Hutch inside air temperatures were lowest in the WH and highest in the PH. Calf skin temperatures followed a similar trend and were lowest when calves were in the WH and highest in the PH. Calves in the plywood hutches had significantly lower rectal temperatures than those in the polyethylene hutches. Calves in the PH had higher respiratory rates. The WH provided the coolest and the PH the warmest environment for the calf based on these parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)741-745
Number of pages5
JournalApplied Engineering in Agriculture
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering


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