Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world; therefore, extensive research has been dedicated to exploring potential therapeutics, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Initially, programmed-death ligand-1 was the biomarker utilized to predict the efficacy of ICIs. However, its heterogeneous expression in the tumor microenvironment, which is critical to cancer progression, promoted the exploration of the tumor mutation burden (TMB). Research in various cancers, such as melanoma and lung cancer, has shown an association between high TMB and response to ICIs, increasing its predictive value. However, the TMB has failed to predict ICI response in numerous other cancers. Therefore, future research is needed to analyze the variations between cancer types and establish TMB cutoffs in order to create a more standardized methodology for using the TMB clinically. In this review, we aim to explore current research on the efficacy of the TMB as a biomarker, discuss current approaches to overcoming immunoresistance to ICIs, and highlight new trends in the field such as liquid biopsies, next generation sequencing, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, and personalized tumor vaccines.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry