The Energy Storage Density of Redox Flow Battery Chemistries: A Thermodynamic Analysis

Derek M. Hall, Justin Grenier, Timothy S. Duffy, Serguei N. Lvov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The need for viable energy storage technologies is becoming more apparent as the amount of renewable energy being wasted increases. Here, we have provided an in-depth quantification of the theoretical energy storage density possible from redox flow battery chemistries which is essential to understanding the energy storage capacity of a battery system. This improved energy storage density model captures a wide range of conditions and reaction types based on fundamental electrolyte chemistry principles and thermodynamics. The model proposed here Requires standard Gibbs energy, activity coefficients, and state of charge limits. We also demonstrate that energy efficiency values can be incorporated to account for non-thermodynamic contributions. All-vanadium and iron-chromium redox flow battery chemistries were modeled using literature data to confirm the accuracy of the proposed approach. Excellent agreements were obtained between our modeling results and experimental energy storage values obtained from literature. Using this approach, we can precisely quantify the storage capacity possible with new chemistries and assess the tradeoffs we make by enhancing one property at the expense of another.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110536
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jan 8 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


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