The female athlete triad: Energy deficiency, physiologic consequences, and treatment

Albert C. Hergenroeder, Mary Jane De Souza, Roberta H. Anding

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Exercise has demonstrated benefits for young women. However, a subgroup of young women exercises to the extent that the high-energy expenditure of their exercise is not balanced with adequate calories, thereby resulting in an energy deficit. This energy deficit, when chronic, can have adverse health consequences. When the chronic energy deficit involves menstrual dysfunction and low bone mass, it is referred to as the female athlete triad. This article discusses the pathophysiology of the female athlete triad, its clinical presentations, and a treatment approach to address it.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-142
Number of pages27
JournalAdolescent medicine: state of the art reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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