The foundations and assumptions of technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments

Michael J. Hannafin, Susan M. Land

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

324 Scopus citations


Direct instruction approaches, as well as the design processes that support them, have been criticized for failing to reflect contemporary research and theory in teaching, learning, and technology. Learning systems are needed that encourage divergent reasoning, problem solving, and critical thinking. Student-centered learning environments have been touted as a means to support such processes. With the emergence of technology, many barriers to implementing innovative alternatives may be overcome. The purposes of this paper are to review and critically analyze research and theory related to technology-enhanced student-centered learning environments and to identify their foundations and assumptions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)167-202
Number of pages36
JournalInstructional Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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