The “Haves, Have Some, and Have Nots:” a Latent Profile Analysis of Capacity, Quality, and Implementation in Community-Based Afterschool Programs

Emilie Phillips Smith, Dawn P. Witherspoon, Pui Wa Lei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Implementation of evidence-based practices is a critical factor in whether afterschool programs are successful in having a positive impact upon risk reduction and positive youth development. However, important prevention research reveals that contextual and organizational factors can affect implementation (Bradshaw & Pas in School Psychology Review, 40, 530–548, 2011) (Flaspohler et al., in American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(3-4), 271-281, 2012) (Gottfredson et al., Prevention Science, 3, 43–56, 2002) (McIntosh et al., Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 18(4), 209-218, 2016) (Payne in Prevention Science, 10, 151–167, 2009). Using a latent profile approach (LPA), this paper examines multiple organizational and neighborhood contextual factors that might affect the degree to which afterschool programs effectively implement evidence-based practices in the context of a cluster-randomized trial of the Paxis Good Behavior Game (PaxGBG). The Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) explores dimensions of capacity that might matter for prevention efforts. As expected, we found that well-resourced and high-quality programs performed well in terms of implementation (the Haves) and, in neighborhood contexts rich in racial-ethnic diversity. Yet, we found that some programs with less physical and material capacity (the Have Nots), demonstrated greater program quality (i.e., supportive adult and peer relationships, engagement, a sense of belonging) and implementation, relative to programs with better capacity (e.g., space, material resources, staffing, and leadership, the Have Somes). While capacity matters, intentional prevention initiatives that seek to promote evidence-based practices are helpful to sites in supporting organizations that might otherwise fail to provide quality programming for youth. This paper addresses a conundrum in prevention science, namely, how to make programming accessible to those who need it with a focus on organizational processes, program quality, and implementation of evidence-based practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)971-985
Number of pages15
JournalPrevention Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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