The household water insecurity experiences (Hwise) scale: Comparison scores from 27 sites in 22 countries

Justin Stoler, Joshua D. Miller, Ellis A. Adams, Farooq Ahmed, Mallika Alexander, Gershim Asiki, Mobolanle Balogun, Michael J. Boivin, Alexandra Brewis, Genny Carrillo, Kelly Chapman, Stroma Cole, Shalean M. Collins, Jorge Escobar-Vargas, Hassan Eini-Zinab, Matthew C. Freeman, Monet Ghorbani, Ashley Hagaman, Nicola Hawley, Zeina JamaluddineWendy E. Jepson, Divya Krishnakumar, Kenneth Maes, Jyoti Mathad, Jonathan Maupin, Patrick Mbullo Owuor, Milton Marin Morales, Javier Morán-Martínez, Nasrin Omidvar, Amber L. Pearson, Sabrina Rasheed, Asher Y. Rosinger, Luisa Samayoa-Figueroa, Ernesto C. Sánchez-Rodríguez, Marianne V. Santoso, Roseanne C. Schuster, Mahdieh Sheikhi, Sonali Srivastava, Chad Staddon, Andrea Sullivan, Yihenew Tesfaye, Alex Trowell, Desire Tshala-Katumbay, Raymond Tutu, Cassandra L. Workman, Amber Wutich, Sera L. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Household survey data from 27 sites in 22 countries were collected in 2017–2018 in order to construct and validate a cross-cultural household-level water insecurity scale. The resultant Household Water Insecurity Experiences (HWISE) scale presents a useful tool for monitoring and evaluating water interventions as a complement to traditional metrics used by the development community. It can also help track progress toward achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 6 ‘clean water and sanitation for all’. We present HWISE scale scores from 27 sites as comparative data for future studies using the HWISE scale in low-and middle-income contexts. Site-level mean scores for HWISE-12 (scored 0–36) ranged from 1.64 (SD 4.22) in Pune, India, to 20.90 (7.50) in Cartagena, Colombia, while site-level mean scores for HWISE-4 (scored 0–12) ranged from 0.51 (1.50) in Pune, India, to 8.21 (2.55) in Punjab, Pakistan. Scores tended to be higher in the dry season as expected. Data from this first implementation of the HWISE scale demonstrate the diversity of water insecurity within and across communities and can help to situate findings from future applications of this tool.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1102-1110
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Development
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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