The impact of cancer metastases on COVID-19 outcomes: A COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry-based retrospective cohort study

Cecilia A. Castellano, Tianyi Sun, Deepak Ravindranathan, Clara Hwang, Nino Balanchivadze, Sunny R.K. Singh, Elizabeth A. Griffiths, Igor Puzanov, Erika Ruiz-Garcia, Diana Vilar-Compte, Ana I. Cárdenas-Delgado, Rana R. McKay, Taylor K. Nonato, Archana Ajmera, Peter P. Yu, Rajani Nadkarni, Timothy E. O’Connor, Stephanie Berg, Kim Ma, Dimitrios FarmakiotisKendra Vieira, Panos Arvanitis, Renee M. Saliby, Chris Labaki, Talal El Zarif, Trisha M. Wise-Draper, Olga Zamulko, Ningjing Li, Brianne E. Bodin, Melissa K. Accordino, Matthew Ingham, Monika Joshi, Hyma V. Polimera, Leslie A. Fecher, Christopher R. Friese, James J. Yoon, Blanche H. Mavromatis, Jacqueline T. Brown, Karen Russell, Rahul Nanchal, Harpreet Singh, Lisa Tachiki, Feras A. Moria, Gayathri Nagaraj, Kimberly Cortez, Saqib H. Abbasi, Elizabeth M. Wulff-Burchfield, Matthew Puc, Lisa B. Weissmann, Padmanabh S. Bhatt, Melissa G. Mariano, Sanjay Mishra, Susan Halabi, Alicia Beeghly, Jeremy L. Warner, Benjamin French, Mehmet A. Bilen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: COVID-19 can have a particularly detrimental effect on patients with cancer, but no studies to date have examined if the presence, or site, of metastatic cancer is related to COVID-19 outcomes. Methods: Using the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium (CCC19) registry, the authors identified 10,065 patients with COVID-19 and cancer (2325 with and 7740 without metastasis at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis). The primary ordinal outcome was COVID-19 severity: not hospitalized, hospitalized but did not receive supplemental O2, hospitalized and received supplemental O2, admitted to an intensive care unit, received mechanical ventilation, or died from any cause. The authors used ordinal logistic regression models to compare COVID-19 severity by presence and specific site of metastatic cancer. They used logistic regression models to assess 30-day all-cause mortality. Results: Compared to patients without metastasis, patients with metastases have increased hospitalization rates (59% vs. 49%) and higher 30 day mortality (18% vs. 9%). Patients with metastasis to bone, lung, liver, lymph nodes, and brain have significantly higher COVID-19 severity (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 1.38, 1.59, 1.38, 1.00, and 2.21) compared to patients without metastases at those sites. Patients with metastasis to the lung have significantly higher odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted OR, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.17–2.00) when adjusting for COVID-19 severity. Conclusions: Patients with metastatic cancer, especially with metastasis to the brain, are more likely to have severe outcomes after COVID-19 whereas patients with metastasis to the lung, compared to patients with cancer metastasis to other sites, have the highest 30-day mortality after COVID-19.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2191-2204
Number of pages14
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 15 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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