The integrated trait-state model

Ellen L. Hamaker, John R. Nesselroade, Peter C.M. Molenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

158 Scopus citations


It has been acknowledged that both trait and state contribute to psychological measurements. However, existing structural equation models for disentangling these sources of variability are based on assumptions that are not tenable in the light of empirical results. A new model is presented, termed the integrated trait-state (ITS) model, which both decomposes state and trait variance and allows one to test the assumptions that underly existing approaches. This is illustrated with an empirical example. The relationship between the ITS model and other analytic approaches as well as conceptual models of traits and states are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)295-315
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Research in Personality
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2007

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology
  • General Psychology


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