The Luminous and Double-peaked Type Ic Supernova 2019stc: Evidence for Multiple Energy Sources

Sebastian Gomez, Edo Berger, Griffin Hosseinzadeh, Peter K. Blanchard, Matt Nicholl, V. Ashley Villar

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We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2019stc (=ZTF19acbonaa), an unusual Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) at a redshift of z = 0.117. SN 2019stc exhibits a broad double-peaked light curve, with the first peak having an absolute magnitude of M r = -20.0 mag, and the second peak, about 80 rest-frame days later, M r = -19.2 mag. The total radiated energy is large, E rad ≈ 2.5 1050 erg. Despite its large luminosity, approaching those of Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), SN 2019stc exhibits a typical SN Ic spectrum, bridging the gap between SLSNe and SNe Ic. The spectra indicate the presence of Fe-peak elements, but modeling of the first light-curve peak with radioactive heating alone leads to an unusually high nickel mass fraction of f Ni ≈ 0.31 (M Ni ≈ 3.2 M o˙). Instead, if we model the first peak with a combined magnetar spin-down and radioactive heating model we find a better match with M ej ≈ 4 M o˙, a magnetar spin period of P spin ≈ 7.2 ms, and magnetic field of B ≈ 1014 G, and f Ni ≲ 0.2 (consistent with SNe Ic). The prominent second peak cannot be naturally accommodated with radioactive heating or magnetar spin-down, but instead can be explained as circumstellar interaction with ≈0.7 M o˙ of hydrogen-free material located ≈400 au from the progenitor. Accounting for the ejecta mass, circumstellar shell mass, and remnant neutron star mass, we infer a CO core mass prior to explosion of ≈6.5 M o˙. The host galaxy has a metallicity of ≈0.26 Z o˙, low for SNe Ic but consistent with SLSNe. Overall, we find that SN 2019stc is a transition object between normal SNe Ic and SLSNe.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number143
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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