The morphology-density relation in z ∼ 1 clusters

M. Postman, M. Franx, N. J.G. Cross, B. Holden, H. C. Ford, G. D. Illingworth, T. Goto, R. Demarco, P. Rosati, J. P. Blakeslee, K. V. Tran, N. Benitez, M. Clampin, G. F. Hartig, N. Homeier, D. R. Ardila, F. Bartko, R. J. Bouwens, L. D. Bradley, T. J. BroadhurstR. A. Brown, C. J. Burrows, E. S. Cheng, P. D. Feldman, D. A. Golimowski, C. Gronwall, L. Infante, R. A. Kimble, J. E. Krist, M. P. Lesser, A. R. Martel, S. Mei, F. Menanteau, G. R. Meurer, G. K. Miley, V. Motta, M. Sirianni, W. B. Sparks, H. D. Tran, Z. I. Tsvetanov, R. L. White, W. Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

326 Scopus citations


We measure the morphology-density relation (MDR) and morphology-radius relation (MRR) for galaxies in seven z ∼ 1 clusters that have been observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Simulations and independent comparisons of our visually derived morphologies indicate that ACS allows one to distinguish between E, S0, and spiral morphologies down to z8550 = 24, corresponding to L/L* = 0.21 and 0.30 at z = 0.83 and 1.24, respectively. We adopt density and radius estimation methods that match those used at lower redshift in order to study the evolution of the MDR and MRR. We detect a change in the MDR between 0.8 < z < 1.2 and that observed at z ∼ 0, consistent with recent work; specifically, the growth in the bulge-dominated galaxy fraction, f E+S0, with increasing density proceeds less rapidly at z ∼ 1 than it does at z ∼ 0. At z ∼ 1 and Σ ≥ 500 galaxies Mpc -2, we find 〈fE+S0〉 = 0-72 ± 0.10. At z ∼ 0, an E+S0 population fraction of this magnitude occurs at densities about 5 times smaller. The evolution in the MDR is confined to densities Σ ≳ 40 galaxies Mpc-2 and appears to be primarily due to a deficit of SO galaxies and an excess of Sp+Irr galaxies relative to the local galaxy population. Theye-density relation exhibits no significant evolution between z = 1 and 0. We find mild evidence to suggest that the MDR is dependent on the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the intracluster medium. Implications for the evolution of the disk galaxy population in dense regions are discussed in the context of these observations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)721-741
Number of pages21
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2 I
StatePublished - Apr 20 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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