The Relationship Between Takeover Request Lead Time and Drivers’ Situation Awareness for Freeway Exiting in Conditionally Automated Driving

Xiaomei Tan, Yiqi Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Conditionally automated vehicles require the out-of-the-loop driver to intervene when the system is unable to handle forthcoming situations, such as freeway exiting. The takeover request (ToR) for exiting a freeway can be scheduled in advance. Upon a ToR, the driver needs to gain situation awareness (SA) and resume manual control. This study examined how the ToR lead time affects driver SA for resuming control and when to send the ToR is most appropriate for freeway exiting. A web-based, supervised experiment was conducted with 31 participants. Each participant experienced 12 levels of ToR lead time (6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 s). The results showed positive effects of longer ToR lead times (16–60 s) on driver SA for resuming control to exit from freeways in comparison to shorter ToR lead times (6–14 s), and the effects level off at 16–30 s.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1385-1389
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021
Event65th Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, HFES 2021 - Baltimore, United States
Duration: Oct 3 2021Oct 8 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics

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