The Relationship of Self-Efficacy and Depression to Stuttering

Melissa A. Bray, Thomas J. Kehle, Kimberly A. Lawless, Lea A. Theodore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


This study investigated the relationship of self-efficacy for verbal fluency, academic self-efficacy, and depression between adolescents who stutter and fluent speakers. Two separate discriminant function analyses were performed. The first analysis used the self-efficacy and depression scores as response variables and fluency classification as the grouping variable. Results indicated that self-efficacy for speech was the sole significant variable and accounted for 61% of the variance in group status. A second simplified discriminant function analysis was performed using speech self-efficacy as the sole predictor of group membership. This single discriminant function correctly classified 81% of the overall sample into their known groups. Further, classification for participants who did not stutter (95.2%) was better than for those who did stutter (67%). Based on this and earlier research, adolescents appear to be capable of using self-efficacy scaling as a measure of confidence for verbal fluency, which may eventually prove to be useful in treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)425-431
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican journal of speech-language pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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