The role of Co in the BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 based X9R ceramics

Yue Sun, Hanxing Liu, Hua Hao, Lin Zhang, Shujun Zhang

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Ceramics in BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-Nb2O5-Co3O4 (BT-NBT-Nb-Co) system were fabricated to satisfy the EIA-X9R specification (-55 ∼ 200 °C, ΔC/C ≤ ± 15%) of multilayer ceramic capacitors. The role of Co in this system was investigated. The core-shell structure was found to exist in the system, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), accounting for the high dielectric temperature stability. The Co can regulate the reaction between Nb and BT-NBT to adjust the core-shell structure, where the optimum dielectric properties were achieved at Nb/Co = 3, with dielectric constant being 930 at room temperature and capacitance variation being less than 15% in the temperature range from - 55 °C to 200 °C. The impedance spectroscopy was fitted by 3RC equivalent circuit, corresponding to the grain, grain boundary and ceramic/electrode interface region for the Co modified BT-NBT system. The conduction activation energy of grain was found to decrease with increasing Co concentration, where the conduction mechanism of grain and grain boundary are both sensitive to the Co concentration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)931-939
Number of pages9
JournalCeramics International
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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