The role of defects and doping in 2D graphene sheets and 1D nanoribbons

Humberto Terrones, Ruitao Lv, Mauricio Terrones, Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

482 Scopus citations


Defects are usually seen as imperfections in materials that could significantly degrade their performance. However, at the nanoscale, defects could be extremely useful since they could be exploited to generate novel, innovative and useful materials and devices. Graphene and graphene nanoribbons are no exception. This review therefore tries to categorize defects, emphasize their importance, introduce the common routes to study and identify them and to propose new ways to construct novel devices based on defective graphene-like materials. In particular, we will discuss defects in graphene-like systems including (a) structural (sp 2-like) defects, (b) topological (sp 2-like) defects, (c) doping or functionalization (sp 2- and sp 3-like) defects and (d) vacancies/edge type defects (non-sp 2-like). It will be demonstrated that defects play a key role in graphene physicochemical properties and could even be critical to generate biocompatible materials. There are numerous challenges in this emerging field, and we intend to provide a stimulating account which could trigger new science and technological developments based on defective graphene-like materials that could be introduced into other atomic layered materials, such as BN, MoS 2 and WS 2, not discussed in this review.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number062501
JournalReports on Progress in Physics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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