There has been a significant increase in youth participating in throwing sports during the past three decades. Youth athletes today frequently train and compete year-round. Some young athletes are specializing in a single sport at an early age. As higher demands are placed on these young athletes at earlier ages, the chance of injury increases. With this increase in participation, there has been a commensurate rise in pediatric shoulder and elbow injuries that result from throwing sports. This chapter will review the anatomy of the shoulder and elbow and the mechanics of the throwing motion and discuss the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation of pediatric throwing injuries of the shoulder and elbow. Early recognition and proper treatment of such injuries will hopefully prevent later sequelae or functional disability. Five common upper extremity injuries in youth athletes will be discussed in detail: Little league shoulder, shoulder instability, little league elbow, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, and medial epicondyle injuries.
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