The use of computer simulation in the evaluation of electric vehicle batteries

W. B. Gu, C. Y. Wang, B. Y. Liaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


An integrated simulation and testing approach is presented to evaluate batteries for electric vehicle (EV) applications. This new approach combines traditional experimental testing with computer simulations to create a cost-effective means to evaluate EV batteries and provide important information that is difficult or impossible to obtain from purely experimental measurements. The present simulators for the lead-acid and nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries are developed based on the fundamental principles governing their electrochemical behaviors and are created using an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. Computer simulations are validated by experimental data under the dynamic stress test (DST) procedure for a lead-acid battery module and a Ni-MH cell with good agreement. Moreover, computer simulations reveal that the studied lead-acid battery underutilizes the active material by as much as 70% and the MH electrode of the Ni-MH cell is overdesigned by about 30% under the simulated EV duty. Therefore, there is good potential of increasing the specific energy and reducing the cost if batteries are optimized for EVs using a simulation-based design approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-161
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 1 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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