As the evidence-based intervention (EBI) movement proliferated in medicine, psychology, and education, interest turned to establishing criteria for determining whether an intervention and/or program can be described as ldquoevidence-based.rdquo Less attention has been focused on establishing an empirical basis to understand and facilitate adoption of EBIs in practice settings. In this article, the Evidence-Based Intervention Work Group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison reviews some conceptual and theoretical models that have bearing on future research regarding this adoption process. First, we provide a brief overview of the EBI movement and then argue for research on the conceptual and theoretical models pertaining to adoption of EBIs. Specifically, conceptual and/or theoretical models of change and adoption of innovation are discussed for consideration in research and practice in the EBI movement. Applications and limitations of the approaches are discussed within the context of the adoption and sustainability of EBIs in practice settings. textcopyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 475-494, 2005.