Thermal Design and Characterization of Heterogeneously Integrated InGaP/GaAs HBTs

Sukwon Choi, Gregory M. Peake, Gordon A. Keeler, Kent M. Geib, Ronald D. Briggs, Thomas E. Beechem, Ryan A. Shaffer, Jascinda Clevenger, Gary A. Patrizi, John F. Klem, Anna Tauke-Pedretti, Christopher D. Nordquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Flip-chip heterogeneously integrated n-p-n InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with integrated thermal management on wide-bandgap AlN substrates followed by GaAs substrate removal are demonstrated. Without thermal management, substrate removal after integration significantly aggravates self-heating effects, causing poor $I$-$V$ characteristics due to excessive device self-heating. An electrothermal codesign scheme is demonstrated that involves simulation (design), thermal characterization, fabrication, and evaluation. Thermoreflectance thermal imaging, electrical-temperature sensitive parameter-based thermometry, and infrared thermography were utilized to assess the junction temperature rise in HBTs under diverse configurations. In order to reduce the thermal resistance of integrated devices, passive cooling schemes assisted by structural modification, i.e., positioning indium bump heat sinks between the devices and the carrier, were employed. By implementing thermal heat sinks in close proximity to the active region of flip-chip integrated HBTs, the junction-to-baseplate thermal resistance was reduced over a factor of two, as revealed by junction temperature measurements and improvement of electrical performance. The suggested heterogeneous integration method accounts for not only electrical but also thermal requirements providing insight into realization of advanced and robust III-V/Si heterogeneously integrated electronics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7457639
Pages (from-to)740-748
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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