Thermally stimulated depolarization current measurements on degraded lead zirconate titanate films

Betul Akkopru-Akgun, Daniel M. Marincel, Kosuke Tsuji, Thorsten J.M. Bayer, Clive A. Randall, Michael T. Lanagan, Susan Trolier-McKinstry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Charge transport mechanisms governing DC resistance degradation in ferroelectric films are influenced by defects, particularly oxygen vacancies. This paper demonstrates that oxygen vacancies migrate in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films under a DC bias field and contribute to resistance degradation. Model PZT thin films were developed in which the concentration and distribution of oxygen vacancies were controlled via (a) changing the dopant type and concentration from 1%–4% Mn (acceptor) to 1%–4% Nb (donor) or (b) annealing undoped PZT films at varying partial pressures of PbO. The presence of associated (immobile) and dissociated (mobile) oxygen vacancies was distinguished by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements. The impact of mobile oxygen vacancies on local defect chemistry and associated charge transport mechanisms was explored by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). For Mn-doped PZT films, following resistance degradation, TSDC studies revealed only one depolarization peak with an activation energy of 0.6–0.8 eV; this peak was associated with ionic space charge presumably due to migration of oxygen vacancies. The magnitude of the depolarization current peak increased with increasing degradation times. A similar depolarization current peak attributed to the existence of mobile oxygen vacancies was also observed for undoped and Nb-doped PZT films; the magnitude of this peak decreased as the Nb or PbO contents in PZT films increased. An additional TSDC peak associated with polaron hopping between Ti3+ and Ti4+ was found in both Nb-doped PZT films and undoped PZT films annealed under low PbO partial pressure. Degraded Nb-doped samples exhibited a chemical shift in the TiL2,3 peak to lower energy losses and the appearance of shoulders on the t2g and eg peaks, implying a reduction of Ti cations in regions near the cathode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5270-5280
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume104
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry

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