Thermodynamic Properties of Barium-Antimony Alloys Determined by Emf Measurements

Timothy Lichtenstein, Jarrod Gesualdi, Thomas P. Nigl, Chen Ta Yu, Hojong Kim

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9 Scopus citations


The thermodynamic properties of Ba-Sb alloys, including the activity, partial molar entropy, and partial molar enthalpy, were determined using the electromotive force (emf) technique for thirteen compositions spanning the composition range of xBa = 0.03–0.77. Emf measurements were performed at ambient pressure under an inert argon atmosphere using a Ba-Bi(xBa = 0.05)|CaF2-BaF2|Ba(in Sb) electrochemical cell at 723–1073 K. At 923 K, activity values of Ba in Sb were as low as 2.0 × 10−15 at mole fraction xBa = 0.05 and approached unity for mole fractions xBa ≥ 0.77. Phase characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) was performed on compositions of xBa = 0.03–0.77 and thermal characterization was performed on compositions up to xBa = 0.40 using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Integrating the results from emf, XRD, and DSC measurements, an experimentally determined Ba-Sb phase diagram was constructed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)203-211
Number of pages9
JournalElectrochimica Acta
StatePublished - Oct 10 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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