Three-dimensional integration of two-dimensional field-effect transistors

Darsith Jayachandran, Rahul Pendurthi, Muhtasim Ul Karim Sadaf, Najam U. Sakib, Andrew Pannone, Chen Chen, Ying Han, Nicholas Trainor, Shalini Kumari, Thomas V. Mc Knight, Joan M. Redwing, Yang Yang, Saptarshi Das

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


In the field of semiconductors, three-dimensional (3D) integration not only enables packaging of more devices per unit area, referred to as ‘More Moore’ 1 but also introduces multifunctionalities for ‘More than Moore’ 2 technologies. Although silicon-based 3D integrated circuits are commercially available 3–5, there is limited effort on 3D integration of emerging nanomaterials 6,7 such as two-dimensional (2D) materials despite their unique functionalities 7–10. Here we demonstrate (1) wafer-scale and monolithic two-tier 3D integration based on MoS2 with more than 10,000 field-effect transistors (FETs) in each tier; (2) three-tier 3D integration based on both MoS2 and WSe2 with about 500 FETs in each tier; and (3) two-tier 3D integration based on 200 scaled MoS2 FETs (channel length, L CH = 45 nm) in each tier. We also realize a 3D circuit and demonstrate multifunctional capabilities, including sensing and storage. We believe that our demonstrations will serve as the foundation for more sophisticated, highly dense and functionally divergent integrated circuits with a larger number of tiers integrated monolithically in the third dimension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-281
Number of pages6
Issue number7994
StatePublished - Jan 11 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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