Three-Dimensional Morphometric Modeling Measurements of the Calcaneus in Adults with Stage IIB Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction: A Pilot Study

Kempland C. Walley, Evan P. Roush, Christopher M. Stauch, Allen R. Kunselman, Kaitlin L. Saloky, Jesse L. King, Gregory S. Lewis, Michael C. Aynardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: The pathophysiology of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) is not fully explained by degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon alone. While a shortened or dysplastic lateral column has been implicated in flatfoot deformity in pediatrics, there is no study that has quantified the degree of dysplasia in adults with a stage IIb flatfoot deformity, or if any exists at all. Methods: An institutional radiology database was queried for patients with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) who had computed tomography (CT) performed. Controls were patients receiving CT scan for an intra-articular distal tibia fracture without preexisting foot or calcaneal pathology. Clinical notes, physical examination, and weightbearing radiographs were used to find patients that met clinical criteria for stage IIb PTTD. Morphometric measurements of the calcanei were performed involving the length of the calcaneal axis (LCA), height of the anterior process (HAP), and length of the anterior process (LAP). All measurements were performed independently by separate observers, with observers blinded to group assignment. We considered a difference of ±4 mm as our threshold. Results: 7 patients and 7 controls were available for reconstruction and analysis. On average, the LCA was 3.1 mm shorter in patients with stage IIb PTTD compared with controls (P <.05). The LAP was shorter in PTTD patients compared with controls 3.4 mm (P <.001). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that the calcaneus of adult patients with stage IIb AAFD is dysplastic when compared with healthy controls, which further supports the utility of lateral column lengthening. Levels of Evidence: Level III: Case-control study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-321
Number of pages6
JournalFoot and Ankle Specialist
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Podiatry
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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