Three Problems in Learning Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria

J. S. Jordan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations


This paper discusses three problems that can prevent the convergence of learning mechanisms to mixed-strategy Nash equilibria. First, while players′ expectations may converge to a mixed equilibrium, the strategies played typically fail to converge. Second, even in 2 × 2 games, fictitious play can produce a sequence of frequency distributions in which the marginal frequencies converge to equilibrium mixed strategies but the joint frequencies violate independence. Third, in a three-player matching-pennies game with a unique equilibrium, it is shown that if players learn as Bayesian statisticians then the equilibrium is locally unstable. Journal of Economic Literature Classification Numbers: C72, C73, D83.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)368-386
Number of pages19
JournalGames and Economic Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1993

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Finance
  • Economics and Econometrics


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