Three-way metric unfolding via alternating weighted least squares

Wayne Desarbo, J. Douglas Carroll

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Three-way unfolding was developed by DeSarbo (1978) and reported in DeSarbo and Carroll (1980, 1981) as a new model to accommodate the analysis of two-mode three-way data (e.g., nonsymmetric proximities for stimulus objects collected over time) and three-mode, three-way data (e.g., subjects rendering preference judgments for various stimuli in different usage occasions or situations). This paper presents a revised objective function and new algorithm which attempt to prevent the common type of degenerate solutions encountered in typical unfolding analysis. We begin with an introduction of the problem and a review of three-way unfolding. The three-way unfolding model, weighted objective function, and new algorithm are presented. Monte Carlo work via a fractional factorial experimental design is described investigating the effect of several data and model factors on overall algorithm performance. Finally, three applications of the methodology are reported illustrating the flexibility and robustness of the procedure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-300
Number of pages26
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 1985

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)
  • Applied Mathematics


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