Time Styles and Waiting in Crowded Service Environments

Anna S. Mattila, Lydia Hanks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


This study examines the moderating impact of consumers' time styles on their emotional reactions and evaluations of waiting time in crowded and non-crowded environments. A quasi-experimental design was used to test our hypotheses. Our results indicate that waiting in a crowded environment results in negative emotions. In addition, people who scored high on economic time style reported significantly less satisfaction with their choice of airlines when they waited in crowded conditions. These results extend the literature on crowding and waiting time, and add to our understanding of consumer emotions in service environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-334
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Marketing


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