Objectives: Fluid overload is associated with worse outcomes in adult and pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the time-course of fluid overload and its relationship to outcome has not been described. We aimed to determine the relationship between the timing of fluid overload and outcomes over the first 7 days after acute respiratory distress syndrome onset in children. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Single tertiary care PICU. Patients: Intubated children with acute respiratory distress syndrome between 2011 and 2019. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Daily and cumulative total fluid intake, total output, urine output, and fluid balance were collected for each 24-hour period from days 1 to 7 after acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We tested the association between daily cumulative fluid metrics with PICU mortality and probability of extubation by 28 days using multivariable logistic and competing risk regression, respectively. In a subset of children, plasma was collected on day 1 and day 3 of acute respiratory distress syndrome and angiopoietin-2 quantified. Of 723 children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 132 died (18%). In unadjusted analysis, nonsurvivors had higher cumulative fluid balance starting on day 3. In multivariable analysis, a positive cumulative fluid balance on days 5 through 7 was associated with increased mortality. Higher cumulative fluid balance on days 4 to 7 was associated with lower probability of extubation. Elevated angiopoietin-2 on day 1 predicted early (within 3 d) fluid overload greater than or equal to 10%, and elevated angiopoietin-2 on day 3 predicted late (between days 4 and 7) fluid overload. Conclusions: Fluid overload after day 4 of acute respiratory distress syndrome, but not before, was associated with worse outcomes. Higher angiopoietin-2 predicted subsequent fluid overload. Our results suggest that future interventions aimed at managing fluid overload may have differential efficacy depending on when in the time-course of acute respiratory distress syndrome they are initiated.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine