Toddler dietary patterns from the INSIGHT randomized clinical trial comparing responsive parenting versus control: A latent class analysis

Erika Hernandez, Emily E. Hohman, Mackenzie J. Ferrante, Stephanie Anzman-Frasca, Ian M. Paul, Jennifer S. Savage

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention on toddler diet and explore associations with mothers' infant feeding practices and child weight status. Methods: INSIGHT tested an RP intervention designed for the prevention of obesity against a safety control among primiparous mothers and their infants. Mothers reported on feeding practices, as well as toddler diet with a Food Frequency Questionnaire (n = 229). Trained research staff obtained child anthropometrics at age 2 years. Results: Latent class analysis identified three dietary patterns: high fruits and vegetables (HFV, 31%); meat, potatoes, and added sugars (MPAS, 24%); and high juice, low fruits and vegetables (JLFV, 45%). Toddler dietary pattern was not related to study group (RP, control) or child weight status at age 2 years. Mothers who reported more structure-based feeding had toddlers that were more likely to have the healthier, HFV dietary pattern than MPAS and JLFV. Findings for control-based feeding practices were mixed; maternal restriction was associated with the HFV dietary pattern, whereas the use of food as a reward was associated with MPAS and JLFV. Conclusions: Mothers' structure-based feeding practices in infancy, as well as some control-based feeding practices, were associated with later healthier toddler dietary patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-149
Number of pages9
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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