Toward High-Performance p-Type Two-Dimensional Field Effect Transistors: Contact Engineering, Scaling, and Doping

Aaryan Oberoi, Ying Han, Sergei P. Stepanoff, Andrew Pannone, Yongwen Sun, Yu Chuan Lin, Chen Chen, Jeffrey R. Shallenberger, Da Zhou, Mauricio Terrones, Joan M. Redwing, Joshua A. Robinson, Douglas E. Wolfe, Yang Yang, Saptarshi Das

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


n-type field effect transistors (FETs) based on two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as MoS2 and WS2 have come close to meeting the requirements set forth in the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS). However, p-type 2D FETs are dramatically lagging behind in meeting performance standards. Here, we adopt a three-pronged approach that includes contact engineering, channel length (Lch) scaling, and monolayer doping to achieve high performance p-type FETs based on synthetic WSe2. Using electrical measurements backed by atomistic imaging and rigorous analysis, Pd was identified as the favorable contact metal for WSe2 owing to better epitaxy, larger grain size, and higher compressive strain, leading to a lower Schottky barrier height. While the ON-state performance of Pd-contacted WSe2 FETs was improved by ∼10× by aggressively scaling Lch from 1 μm down to ∼20 nm, ultrascaled FETs were found to be contact limited. To reduce the contact resistance, monolayer tungsten oxyselenide (WOxSey) obtained using self-limiting oxidation of bilayer WSe2 was used as a p-type dopant. This led to ∼5× improvement in the ON-state performance and ∼9× reduction in the contact resistance. We were able to achieve a median ON-state current as high as ∼10 μA/μm for ultrascaled and doped p-type WSe2 FETs with Pd contacts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19709-19723
Number of pages15
JournalACS nano
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 24 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy

Cite this