Traction measurement on natural turf

Andrew S. McNitt, Donald V. Waddington, Robert O. Middour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


An apparatus was developed and field tested to measure traction. The apparatus consists of a framework that supports a leg and foot assembly that can be used to measure both rotational and linear traction using different footwear under various loading weights. The force required to cause foot movement is measured at various degrees of rotation or linear distance traveled. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of turfgrass and soil conditions on traction of turf areas. Specifically, the influences of species, cutting height, shoe type, and loading weight on traction were determined using this apparatus. Tall fescue and Kentucky bluegrass provided the highest traction values while perennial ryegrass and creeping red fescue provided the lowest. Higher linear traction values occurred with lower cutting heights. As vertical force increased, traction increased. A studded shoe provided higher linear traction than a molded shoe across all species and cutting heights, while a molded shoe proved higher rotational traction under some conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-155
Number of pages11
JournalASTM Special Technical Publication
StatePublished - Jan 1 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering


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