Transfer of responsibility from scaffolding to preservice early childhood teachers learning to debug

Brian R. Belland, Chan Min Kim, Emre Dinç, Anna Y. Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Computer science is often integrated within early childhood education (ECE) through the use of educational robots. This requires adequate preparation of ECE teachers to program and debug, which can be done with scaffolding. In this paper, we use a QUANT + qual mixed method approach incorporating lag sequential analysis, ICAP framework coding, sentiment analysis, and supplementary qualitative analysis. Students tended to engage more with tasks in the revision and evaluation phases than in the exploration phase, and became less dependent on scaffolding prompts and more competent in debugging, as debugging task complexity increased. This study addresses a key gap in the scaffolding literature in that it examined learners’ interactions with scaffolding for evidence of decreased reliance on scaffolding.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1439-1464
Number of pages26
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education

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