Transgender and gender non-binary parents' pathways to parenthood

Samantha L. Tornello, Rachel G. Riskind, Aleks Babić

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Researchers know little about pathways to parenthood among transgender and gender nonbinary (TGNB) people. This study explored 311 TGNB parents' pathways to parenthood. Most became parents through biological means, with few becoming parents through adoption or foster care. Compared to other gender identity groups, women (all assigned male at birth) were older, likely to become parents before their gender transition, and likely to become biological coparents with a partner. Participants who became parents before gender transition became parents at younger ages and reported lower socioeconomic status. Men (all assigned female at birth) and gender nonbinary people were more likely to become parents after gender transition and were less likely to have become co-biological-parents with a partner. The older the participant, the more likely they were to report becoming a parent before their gender transition. Current age was positively correlated with age at transition to parenthood. Gender, timing of gender transition, cohort, and couple reproductive potential were all associated with gender transition timing and pathways to parenthood. These findings have implications for reproductive and mental health care providers, social workers, and support staff in related fields.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)232-241
Number of pages10
JournalPsychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gender Studies
  • General Psychology


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