A transient ischemic attack (TIA), a constellation of temporary neurological symptoms, precedes stroke in one-fifth of patients. Thus far, many clinical models have been introduced to optimize the quality, time to treatment, and cost of acute TIA care, either in an inpatient or outpatient setting. In this article, we aim to review the characteristics and outcomes of outpatient TIA clinics across the globe. In addition, we discussed the main challenges for outpatient management of TIA, including triage and diagnosis, and the system dynamics of the clinics. We further reviewed the potential developments in TIA care, such as telemedicine, predictive analytics, personalized medicine, and advanced imaging.
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