Tuning Nb Solubility, Electrical Properties, and Imprint through PbO Stoichiometry in PZT Films

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Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films with high Nb concentrations (6–13 mol%) were grown by chemical solution deposition. In concentrations up to 8 mol% Nb, the films self-compensate the stoichiometry; single phase films were grown from precursor solutions with 10 mol% PbO excess. Higher Nb concentrations induced multi-phase films unless the amount of excess PbO in the precursor solution was reduced. Phase pure perovskite films were grown with 13 mol% excess Nb with the addition of 6 mol% PbO. Charge compensation was achieved by creating lead vacancies when decreasing excess PbO level; using Kroger-Vink notation, (Formula presented.) are ionically compensated by (Formula presented.) to maintain charge neutrality in heavily Nb-doped PZT films. With Nb doping, films showed suppressed {100} orientation, the Curie temperature decreased, and the maximum in the relative permittivity at the phase transition broadened. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties were dramatically degraded due to increased quantity of the non-polar pyrochlore phase in multi-phase films; (Formula presented.) reduced from 1360 ± 8 to 940 ± 6, and the remanent d33,f value decreased from 112 to 42 pm/V when increasing the Nb concentration from 6 to 13 mol%. Property deterioration was corrected by decreasing the PbO level to 6 mol%; phase pure perovskite films were attained. εr and the remanent d33,f increased to 1330 ± 9 and 106 ± 4 pm/V, respectively. There was no discernable difference in the level of self-imprint in phase pure PZT films with Nb doping. However, the magnitude of the internal field after thermal poling at 150 °C increased significantly; the level of imprint was 30 kV/cm and 11.5 kV/cm in phase pure 6 mol% and 13 mol% Nb-doped films, respectively. The absence of mobile (Formula presented.) coupled with the immobile (Formula presented.) in 13 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, leads to lower internal field formation upon thermal poling. For 6 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, the internal field formation was primarily governed by (1) the alignment of (Formula presented.) and (2) the injection and subsequent electron trapping by Ti4+. For 13 mol% Nb-doped PZT films, hole migration between (Formula presented.) controlled internal field formation upon thermal poling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3970
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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