Since the isolation of graphene in 2004, there has been an exponentially growing number of reports on layered two-dimensional (2D) materials for applications ranging from protective coatings to biochemical sensing. Due to the exceptional, and often tunable, electrical, optical, electrochemical, and physical properties of these materials, they can serve as the active sensing element or a supporting substrate for diverse healthcare applications. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent reports on the applications of 2D materials in biosensing and other emerging healthcare areas, ranging from wearable technologies to optogenetics to neural interfacing. Specifically, this review provides (i) a holistic evaluation of relevant material properties across a wide range of 2D systems, (ii) a comparison of 2D material-based biosensors to the state-of-the-art, (iii) relevant material synthesis approaches specifically reported for healthcare applications, and (iv) the technological considerations to facilitate mass production and commercialization.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)