Objective: Little is known about deployment of SARS-CoV-2–neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mab) in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), a high-risk population for COVID-19–related complications. We assessed the utilization of mabs in SNFs and identified facility characteristics associated with effective use. Design: Retrospective cohort study assessing the correlation of SNF characteristics with increasing mab use. Setting and Participants: United States SNFs participating in Project ECHO (Extensions for Community Health Outcomes). Methods: The primary outcome was percentage of total mabs per COVID-19 cases in SNFs. Facilities were divided into 3 groups based on the percentage of the administration of mabs per number of cases: 0%, >0% to 20%, >20%. Ordinal logistic regression was applied to assess whether facility characteristics—study group, state, location, type, size, rating at baseline, weekly average of residents vaccinated, weekly average of staff vaccinated, and total weeks short staffed—correlated with the primary outcome. A multivariable model was used to evaluate the independent effect of predictors. Results: A total of 130 facilities were included. Between the weeks ending on May 30, 2021, and on May 29, 2022, mean mab use when accounting for the number of COVID-19 cases was 12.96% (±26.71%) and >50% of facilities administered 0 doses of mabs. Facility location was associated with mab use (P value .030), with micropolitan facilities having the highest percentage of facilities administering mabs (30.4% in >0% to 20%, and 39.1% in >20%, respectively). There was a nonsignificant trend toward increased mab use in facilities reporting fewer staffing shortages. When the multivariable ordinal logistic regression model was applied, location in a micropolitan vs metropolitan area was associated with higher odds [3.29 (1.30, 8.32), P value .012] of increasing percentage total mabs per cases. Conclusions and Implications: COVID-19 mabs were underutilized in a high-risk population for COVID-19 hospitalization and death. Understanding the barriers to effective distribution is critical in shaping pandemic preparedness efforts for the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-295
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Nursing
  • Health Policy
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

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