Unidimensional Versus Multidimensional: A Bifactor Factor Structure of the Self-Stigma Scale–Short (SSS-S) Among U.S. Adults With Psychiatric Disabilities

Deyu Pan, Zachary A. Babb, Wilson J. Brown, Sang Qin, Jennifer Sánchez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the English version of the Self-Stigma Scale–Short (SSS-S), a nine-item self-report self-stigma measurement, among U.S. adults with psychiatric disabilities. Method: We obtained reliability and validity evidence from a sample of 275 adults with psychiatric disabilities. Results: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 139) yielded a two-factor solution that accounts for 64.97% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 136) was conducted to compare alternative solutions, including a single-factor model, a two-correlated-factor model, a three-correlated-factor model, and a bifactorial model. The CFA results supported the bifactor S·I − 1 model as a superior latent factor structure for the SSS-S. The coefficient ω of the SSS-S was.94, indicating excellent internal reliability. Concurrent validity of the SSS-S was supported by significant positive correlations with societal stigma and psychiatric symptom severity, and negative correlations with psychiatric disability acceptance, general self-efficacy, and hope. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: The overall findings concluded that the English version of the SSS-S demonstrated reliable and valid scores and a primarily unidimensional structure of self-stigma among U.S. adults with psychiatric disabilities. Given the adverse impact of self-stigma and its relationships with recovery-related constructs shown in this study, the routine use of the SSS-S is recommended in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPsychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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