U.S.-Japanese manufacturing equity relationships

Peter F. Swan, John E. Ettlie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


We explored the differences between the joint venture, total ownership, and partial equity positions used by Japanese companies investing in U.S. manufacturing via a secondary data analysis. Partial ownership was used significantly more often in high-technology industries. Joint ventures were significantly more likely to be used in politically sensitive industries and in new entities, and when the Japanese partner had experience with the product.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)462-479
Number of pages18
JournalAcademy of Management Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • General Business, Management and Accounting
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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