Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children

Natalie G. Allen, Kanthi Bangalore Krishna, Peter A. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose of reviewIn this review, we outline the usage and formulations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) in central precocious puberty (CPP), short stature, and gender diverse individuals, as well as adverse effects, long-term outcomes, and monitoring of therapy. There is a particular focus on citing references published within the last 24 months.Recent findingsLong-acting formulations of GnRHa now include Federal Drug Administration approval for subcutaneous injections. Significant adverse events continue to be rarely reported; extremely rare events include arterial hypertension and pseudotumor cerebri. There continue to be no significant long-term consequences including the impact upon body mass index and bone mineral density, which appear to be transient. GnRHas have been used in differences of sexual development (DSD) and increasingly in the treatment of adolescent transgender individuals.SummaryGnRHas remain as the only fully efficacious therapy for CPP and effectively suppress pubertal hormones in other situations. The use of GnRHa therapy in gender incongruent individuals has proven beneficial and has become a standard of care, whereas use in those with DSDs should still be considered experimental.Video abstract

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)442-448
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent opinion in pediatrics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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