Use of the greenfield filter in adolescents for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

Tom Tracy, Marc P. Posner, David E.M. Drucker, Lazar J. Greenfield, Max R. Langham, Gerardo Mendez-Picon, Thomas M. Krummel, Arnold M. Salzberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Serious venous thromboembolic disease is now recognized more frequently in the pediatric age group. Caval interruption is indicated most commonly for prophylaxis against life-threatening or recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) when anticoagulation is ineffective or contraindicated. Greenfield vena caval filters have been utilized locally in 415 adult patients with 97% long-term patency and 5% recurrent embolization. Its application in adolescents is reported herein. Standard adult (30-mm) vena caval filters were placed in ten patients, ages 13 to 18. Four filters were required following PE, six were used for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) when anticoagulation was contraindicated, and one was inserted prophylactically. In eight patients, filter insertion was accomplished with local anesthesia, while two underwent filter placement under general anesthesia administered for other procedures. One filter was misplaced into the right renal vein, requiring a second filter insertion. All patients have been followed from 1 to 11 years with yearly vascular duplex imaging and radionuclide venograms documenting caval patency without clinical embolic sequelae. This duplicates the adult experience in safety and efficacy. As recognition of venous thromboembolism becomes more frequent in the pediatric age group, safe caval interruption may be necessary for those excluded from or not responsive to anticoagulation. This technique may be extended to smaller patients with miniaturization of both filter and carrier.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)529-532
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1988

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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