Using a Person-Centered Analysis to Examine Second-Grade Outcomes of a Universal SEL Program

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Effective universal social skills programs are intended to facilitate the development of students’ social competencies and enhance classroom learning. As such, the present study sought to provide additional insights and a more nuanced understanding of the impacts of one such universal program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007). Using a person-centered data analytic approach, we evaluated SSIS-CIP’s association with heterogeneity in patterns of change on social skills and problem behavior measures over time for second-grade students. Specifically, latent profile analysis yielded three consistent behavior profiles over time: high social competence and low problem behavior, moderate social competence and low problem behavior, and low social competence and high problem behavior. Latent transition analysis suggested that students who were exposed to the SSIS-CIP program were more likely to stay in the same profile or transfer to a more positive behavioral profile than students in the comparison condition. The SSIS-CIP also appeared to benefit those with lower levels of skills and likely in need of intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-237
Number of pages13
JournalSchool Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Mar 9 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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