Using exploratory structural equation modeling to examine and validate the psychometric properties of Multidimensional Prayer instruments in new and diverse groups: an illustration with the Prayer Frequency Scale

Jason C. Immekus, Stephanie Winkeljohn Black, Benjamin Jeppsen, Patrick Pössel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study demonstrates exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), a factor analytic approach, as a method to examine the psychometric properties of multidimensional prayer instruments, many of which were developed on homogenous samples. As psychology of religions scholarship expands to more diverse populations, existing measures must be re-validated with up-to-date statistical methods and more diverse samples. The current study showcases ESEM as a means to re-examine the properties of the Prayer Frequency Scale, including specification of ESEM-based factors within a multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) modeling framework to test for measurement invariance of scale items and latent mean score differences across groups (i.e., male/female). Results supported the retention of 14 prayer dimensions and indicated that the items were invariant across males and females, with females reporting higher latent means across nine of the prayer dimensions. The applicability of ESEM for re-evaluating psychology of religion measures in more diverse samples is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalMental Health, Religion and Culture
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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